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Example Results section for an experimental research paper.


(1) Brn-2 antisense RNA expression in melanoma cells leads to loss of the melanocytic phenotype.

(2) To investigate the function of the brn8 gene in melanoma cells (3) we constructed a vector to express brn8 antisense RNA at a high level in transfected melanoma cells to block Brn8 protein expression. A 700-bp 5′ fragment was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pcDNA1 expression vector in the negative orientation with respect to the CMV promoter (Fig. 4). MM96 melanoma cells were transfected with either the brn2 antisense vector or the pcDNA1 vector alone. (4) Brn8 antisense clones had a dramatically different morphology to normal MM96 cells. In contrast to the bipolar, dendritic parental MM96 cell morphology, these cells were rounded, with flat ruffled cytoplasms and raised nuclei (Fig. 5). These rounded cells were negative for the Brn8 protein on the gel shift assay (Fig. 6). The two control clones transfected with the pcDNA1 vector alone had the same morphology as normal MM96 cells. (5) Loss of brn8 expression therefore has a significant effect on the morphology of melanoma cells.

(1) The heading is written in the active voice to immediately indicate to the reader the results of this experiment. Where the results are clear, this is better than just giving a general, vague heading.

avoid   The effect of brn-2 antisense RNA expression in melanoma cells.

better

Brn-2 antisense RNA expression in melanoma cells leads to loss of the melanocytic phenotype.

(2) The paragraph begins with the aim of the experiment;

³To investigate the function of the brn-2 gene in melanoma cells…”


(3) This is then followed by the experimental design;

“…the brn2 POU domain was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pcDNA1 expression vector in the negative orientation with respect to the CMV promoter (Fig. 4). MM96 melanoma cells were transfected with either the brn2 antisense vector or the pcDNA1 vector alone.”

A figure was used in this case to clarify the structure of the vector for the reader. Note that this does not give the full experimental details such as how the cloning was done or how the cells were transfected. These details are available for the readers reference in the Methods section.

(4) Then the Results are clearly described with references to the Figures. The fact that no effect was seen in the control cells is very important.

(5) Finally a brief conclusion, but no discussion, is given to complete the description of this experiment.

Note that a clinical research paper often presents the results of only one experiment, so the results may be more direct.



Example Results section for a clinical research paper


Comparison of randomised cohorts

(1) There were no major differences in background data between myocardial infarction patients treated by an invasive strategy and those treated by a conservative strategy (Table 1). The majority of patients in both groups were men, who were experiencing their first myocardial infarction.

(2) The primary response variable for this trial was the combined end point of death and nonfatal reinfarction. In the 52-week study period, there was no difference in the incidence of death or reinfarction between the invasive and conservative groups (Table 2). (3) The 1-year cumulative mortality in the invasive group was 6.9% and for the conservative patients it was 7.4%.

(1) There was only one major aim of this study; to compare the results of invasive versus conservative treament of patients with MI. So there is no need for an introductory sentence to describe the aims and rationale. Note that the results presented in Table 1 are clearly summarised, with only the important findings described.

(2) The first sentence of the second paragraph introduces the following data.

(3) Note that this data is better expressed in one sentence that in a table or figure.